1. Neanderthals aren't primitive humans -- they were a fork of an earlier species that homo sapiens are also descended from.
2. Their brains are larger, their bones are thicker and apparently they were pretty clever. Byrne suggests to imagine Mike Tyson mixed with Kenneth Lay mixed with Einstein.
3. The bulk of DNA we have comes from 11 remains of MURDERED Neanderthals. Not only were they murdered, but they were eaten in a cannibalistic feast.
4. They were most likely anti-social. See point #2.
5. They had red hair.
6. They probably became extinct because they were too smart/resourceful/dickish for their own good.
Here's the kicker: Scientists are interested in CLONING these ass-kicking, brillant, cannibal, jerky red-headed super non-humans. Yes, that's a great idea! While we're at it, let's give them a cloned T-Rex to ride around town.